As a province located in the Inner Central Black Sea Region, Çorum is a city pregnant with surprises. It can be said that Çorum is the center of Anatolian geography, even though it was claimed to be at the “center of the world” a few years ago and it soon became clear that this was not true.
As a result of archaeological excavations in Çorum, which enlightens human beings with its historical structure, traces of life from the Paleotic (Polished Stone Age) have been found. In this sense, it is a city that is a living proof of the times when our ancestors and the first people of the world lived.
In the following periods, many deep-rooted civilizations dominated the city. In Çorum, located in the middle of Europe and Asia and an attractive life center, the Hittites, Phrygians, Cimmerians, Medes, Persians, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, Danishmends, Mongols, Eretna Principality, Kadı Burhaneddin Ahmed State and the last Ottoman Empire ruled.
Today, almost 600,000 people live in Çorum, which has an immensely rich cultural heritage. If you happen to be in Central Anatolia, you can improve your intellectual knowledge by visiting Çorum, which has hosted legendary cultures.
The first organized state, the capital of the Hittites, Hattusha, was established in Çorum with its current name.
Located in the center of Anatolia, Hattusha has been included in the World Cultural Heritage List by UNESCO.
The Hittites are at least as old and rich as the Egyptians and Romans.
Çorum is the region where the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, ordered the first national excavations to start.
Historical Artifacts in Çorum
Alacahoyuk Museum and Ruins
Located in Alacahöyük, the museum is a continuation of the Çorum Museum. The museum, which was opened in 1940, displays the historical remains found in the Alacahöyük excavations in 1935.
Chalcolithic, Old Bronze Age, Hittite and Phrygian artifacts are exhibited in this museum in Çorum, where history is gushing from every town.
Artifacts from the Phrygian period found in the Alacalı Pazarlı archaeological site are also in the Alacahöyük museum.
Traces of 4 different civilizations were found in the excavations that started in 1935, which was one of the most important art and culture centers of the Hittites. These civilizations are Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seljuk-Ottoman periods.
Alacahoyuk King Tombs
The monumental sphinxes in the region were built with andesite blocks. The bull figure in the reliefs on the towers symbolizes the “Storm God of the Heavens”.
The most magnificent ruins that allow us to discover the architectural structures of the Hittite period are the royal cemeteries.
These tombs, which are thought to belong to the Princes and Princesses, are 13 tombs from the Old Bronze Period. As seen in many ancient cultures, the sacred tombs were decorated with various animal figures, especially cattle.
In the tomb of the Hittites, who thought that there was life after death, various ornaments, sun discs, deer and bull statues, war tools made of daggers, swords and axes; Interesting ornaments made of earth, stone, gold, silver, bronze, copper and electron have been found.
This impressive open-air temple from the Hattusha period is located outside the city, behind high rocks. More than 90 gods, goddesses, animals and imaginary creatures that people of that period believed in were depicted on the surface of the rocks.
According to Hittite religious ceremonies, during the new year and spring, all the gods would come together and meet at the “house of the storm god”. During these festivities, all the gods in the city would be brought to Yazlıkaya Temple and all the gods would be together.
If you want to see the amazing craftsmanship on the rocks, don’t forget to take a look at Yazlıkaya Temple.
Şapinuva, one of the most important cities of the magnificent Hittite civilization, is on the pass between Göynücek and Alaca Plain.
Due to its political and geographical location, it is in a strategic position both as a military and a religious center. During the excavations in Ortaköy, nearly 4,000 cuneiform tablets and fragments containing military, religious, administrative and fortune-telling in Hattic, Hurrian and Akkadian were found.
These works, which shed light on the social, political and economic life of the period, may surprise you.
Included in the UNESCO “World Cultural Heritage” list in 1986, Hattusha is also famous for its ruins.
Hattusha, the capital of Hitler, is located in Boğazkale district. It was discovered in 1834 by the French Architect Charles Texier. In this way, a lot of information about Hitler, the civilization that was on the verge of being forgotten, has emerged.
Although the excavations were interrupted for a while, they were quickly continued by the German Archaeological Institute. Traces of the Chalcolithic Age and the Early Bronze Age were also discovered.
While the Hattis lived in the region, BC. In the 1700s, the first Hittite Great King, King Anitta from Kuşşara, came to the region, overthrew the local government and declared Hattusha the capital.
Although there is no definite information about when the castle was built, Evliya Çelebi, who came to Çorum in the 17th century, stated that the castle was built by Sultan Kılıç Arslan. Therefore, it is thought to be a Seljuk structure.
WF Ainsworth, who visited the city in the 19th century, claims that the castle was built by Suleiman the Magnificent.
When you enter through the gate of the castle, there are rooms on the right and left sides. The room on the left belongs to the castle guard. The room on the right was used as a prison.
As building material, there are spolia, rubble and cut stones used in the Roman-Byzantine periods.
There is also a small mosque and various residences inside the castle.
Iskilip Castle, which you can easily visit as it is located in the center of Çorum, was built during the Ottoman Period.
The historical castle, on the edge of the Kızılırmak, has magnificent nature views.
The castle is also on the trade route from Istanbul to Amasya.
Although the castle was built during the Ottoman Period, the rock tombs around it belong to the Roman Period.
Historical Iskilip Fountains
When Çorum and the historical fountain are mentioned, the first region that comes to mind is İskilip.
There are also historical mosques in the region with more than 20 historical fountains.
Iskilip fountains, most of which do not have any ornaments, are generally plain and have the names of the people who built the fountain.
Iskilip Rock Tomb
The rock-shaped tombs in the center of Iskilip belong to the Roman period.
There is a rectangular entrance with two columns at the entrance of the rock tomb.
There are lion figures sitting on the heads.
There is the figure of Cupid Eros, depicted in a lying position, inside the triangular pediments on the column capitals.