Kibyra, a 12 thousand-seat stadium reflecting the Roman and Byzantine architectural tradition, a four-functional music house (odeon) covered with Medusa mosaic in the orchestra section, which is unique in the world, late Roman bath, agoras, main street, 9 thousand-person capacity theater, winter theater and underground. It is worth seeing with its tombs.
Monuments and sarcophagi are lined up on both sides of the main street at the eastern entrance of the city. During the excavations, the longest gladiator friezes of antiquity in Turkey were found here. Gladiator reliefs of more than 30 thousand infantry and more than 2,000 cavalry units exhibited in the Burdur Museum highlight the militaristic character of the city.
The stadium is located on the left at the entrance of the ancient city of Kibyra. With a capacity of 12 thousand people and a runway length of 200 meters, the structure was used for sports purposes in the first period of its construction. In the later period, gladiator battles were held in the stadium.
It is shown among the five most magnificent stadiums of the ancient period. Stadion is entered through a monumental door. Another door is the vaulted door in the middle of the south apse.
Since the western side of the stadium rests on the high bedrock of the slope, 21 sitting steps were made here, while 7 sitting steps could be placed on the point with a low slope opposite. Thus, the magnificent plain and lake view of the audience sitting opposite was not blocked.
Under the western rows of seats, they set up a large storage container, Pithoi, connected to the pipes, preventing future rain water from reaching the stadium floor.
It can be reached from the east-west oriented Main Street connecting the Agora, Theater and Stadium of Kibyra. The street is connected to the Agora columnar street extending in the north direction, and the street extending to the theater in the west by an intersection. Covered columned galleries extend over three terraces. Close to the northwest corner of the Agora, there is the Roman Period bath structure and the Gymnasion on the plain in front of it.
3. Turkish Bath
The bath has a history of at least 1,800 years in the ancient city of Kibyra. The main structure of the bath, which is estimated to have been built during the Roman period, is 2,600 square meters, and its total area reaches 5,400 square meters.
The hammam, the third largest building in the city after the stadium and the odeon, is one of the largest in Anatolia. The heating system, on the other hand, is designed to heat the marbles under the marbles on the floor.
Kibyra Antique Theater is one of the most magnificent structures of the city with a capacity of 9 thousand. It is identical to many medium-sized ancient theaters in Anatolia. The seating arrangement, where the equal dominance of the stage from each point is ensured due to the vertical seating areas, reflects the architectural difference of the city from other cities.
The charitable works of the prominent people of the city for the city are engraved as Hellenic on the walkway blocks that divide the rows of seats horizontally. The seats of the theater and the ornate entrance gate to the south have been excavated.
Odeion is another building that puts the ancient city of Kibyra on the list of the best in the world. It is located in the southwest of the hill where the public buildings of the ancient city are located. It is the largest ancient period public structure that can be covered with a roof and heated in ancient Anatolia.
The Odeion, called the Music House/Assembly Building, has a capacity of approximately 3600 people with 31 rows of seats. The Kibyra Odeon, which is the largest odeon in the world with its known dimensions, was used as the courthouse where large cases were held, since it was the judicial center of the Province of Asia Minor in the Roman Period.
While the administrative center in the Anatolian geography, which is called the Province of Asia Minor of Rome, was in the city of Ephesus, the judicial center was located in Kibyra. Kibyra, where the head of the court is located, has undertaken the task of the judicial center of 25 cities around it.
It is thought that the Odeion, with the stage building added in front of it, was used as a theater, where the city council meetings were held at the same time during the winter months. A total of 540 square meters of mosaic flooring was unearthed in the front area of the theater. It is the largest fully intact mosaic ever found in Anatolia.
It is thought to have fallen into disuse, most likely after a fire in the 4th century. It was unearthed in an almost completely preserved state, except for its roof, which seems to have collapsed as a result of fire. Medusa, made of colored marble, unearthed in the very center of the orchestra, is fascinating with its depiction.
6. Medusa Mosaic
The Medusa Mosaic is a marvel of art built in the first period of the 1st century AD. The mosaic depicting Medusa, known as a snake-haired, sharp-toothed, female monster believed to turn malicious people into stone in mythology, is unique. It is made of red and white marble with the ‘Opus Sectile’ technique.
Such a Medusa painting that adorns the middle of the orchestra floor of the Kibyra Odeon is like no other in Anatolia. She is captivating with her huge eyes, her tongue hanging out between her thick lips, her wavy hair and snakes entwined around her neck, and the leaf-like marble decorations surrounding her.
All of the archaeological finds unearthed in the Kibyra excavations are preserved and exhibited in the Burdur Museum today. Burdur Museum, located in the city center of Burdur, received the ‘Museum Worth Visiting’ Award in 2008. There are more than 60 thousand cultural assets in the museum, which contains the finds of the ancient city of Sagalassos.
Kibyra Ancient City entrance fee and visit information
Kibyra Ancient City is located within the borders of Horzum Neighborhood, in the Gölhisar district of Burdur. The ancient city, which can be easily reached from many big cities by private vehicle, is 110 km from Burdur, 142 km from Antalya , 332 km from İzmir , 531 km from Ankara and 688 km from Istanbul.
You can easily reach the ancient city of Kibyra by coming to Gölhisar by following the Çavdır-Denizli road route through Antalya. From the Ankara side, it is possible to reach Gölhisar by following the Gölhisar-Fethiye direction from the Afyonkarahisar-Burdur highway.
You can reach Kibyra Ancient City by following the Acıpayam-Gölhisar line from the İzmir-Aydın-Denizli route. While you are in Kibyra, you can add the Böğrüdelik plateau, Gölhisar lake, Kocagöl, Yusufça Early Byzantine church to the list of places to see.
Burdur’s Gölhisar district, which has made a name for itself with its lavender scented village, is also famous for its roasted and black cumin coffee. If you have the opportunity, search, find and listen to the ‘Teke Region’ music from Sipsi masters.
Kibyra Ancient City is a magnificent ancient city that has been eagerly awaited at every moment of the excavations in the archaeological world in recent years. The city, which was one of the centers where gladiators and horsemen were trained during the Roman Empire, is worth seeing with its architectural structures that have survived to the present day.